Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Gamification as Invention Strategy in Writing Essays and Research Papers

Using games can be a good way to get your mind moving when writing an essay, report, or research paper. Now you ask: What kind of games? It could be something where you have to search for something, but the quest approach sometimes does not yield what you need, which is a well-developed idea of the topic in which you are immersed to the point that you basically become the problem.  What we're describing is, as you can already see, a role-playing game. 

So, the very first step in gamification for brainstorming is to identify a problem. 

Next, start clarifying the mission and the characters for role-playing.


    * My Challenge: Dealing with escaped exotic pets in my neighborhood
  
    * Role Play:  What would a videogame hero, Master Chief Petty Officer John-117 do?
    * Role Play, Second Round:  What would a famous videogame villain or bad guy do? (What would Bowser do? What would The Joker do?)

Now, once you’ve set up your scenario, don’t let a lack of in-depth knowledge about your selected heroes or anti-heroes slow you down. Remember, your goal is to think of solving a problem, and how to do it in an expedient way that may or may not be very ethical. If you are the extremely unethical Joker, then be sure to reflect on how and why your choices are so, well, evil.

Keep in mind that the gamified mind is the following:
    * Mission-focused
    * Aware of causal relationships / cause & effect
    * Very aware of surroundings
    * Able to predict obstacles and anticipate likely dangers
    * Very aware of competitors and impediments
    * Focused on winning / the prize (desired outcome)
    * Ready to maximize efficiency step by step
    * Willing to apply knowledge gained by prior experience
    * Able to quickly search for helpful information when needed

Gamifying your mind can be a powerful approach to brainstorming because it helps you overcome some of the blocks you might have when you try to develop an idea using written text and outlines, where you are staying perhaps too abstract and conceptual.

By adding the gaming approach, you’re involved in a simulation, and thus are engaging on a higher plane where you are a whole person, focused on an outcome. Focusing on an outcome allows you to organize, streamline, and reality-check your approach, and it forces you to become creative if you see certain obstacles or dangers. By role-playing both a hero and a villain, you’re able to evaluate ethical and unethical choices.




When might gamification not work?  It’s possible to completely stall out on gamification if
    * your goal is not challenging enough
    * your goal can’t be defined
    * you can’t identify any obstacles
    * there are no ethical challenges

If you’re stalling out, you may need to revisit your topic and consider how to make it more complex, so that you have more room to expand your thought process.

After you’ve completed your gamification scenario, the next step is to take a look at transforming the scenario into an outline. You’ll start with THE PROBLEM, and the move to SOLUTIONS, which will be your outline.

Free Video-Assisted E-Learning Text:  Available Now!

Friday, August 19, 2016

Drones on Verge of Boom: What You Need to Know to Make Money with Drones (UAS) -- Interview with Marc Johnson, skynce

Operating drones is about to get a lot easier with the implementation of Part 107 of FAA regulations. With that change, and the low cost of entry, we may see a step-change in implementation, and applications will be limited only by the imagination. Welcome to an interview with Marc Johnson, an engineer with 15 years in the oil industry, who builds and deploys drones for many different commercial applications.  

1.  What is your name and your relationship to drones?

My name is Marc Johnson and I have spent 15 years in the Oil and Gas industry applying my passion for technology working with data acquisition, control systems and software.  I love helping people with big problems to solve and take pride in delivering successful outcomes implementing technology.

I founded skynce, LLC a year ago in order to offer consulting services to organizations implementing Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS/drones) into their businesses.  Technology improvements resulting in better drones at lower prices have made UAS adoption practical for a number of commercial applications.  I work with my customers to implement the programs and technologies needed to execute UAS missions.  When we move into the part 107 regulatory regime skynce, LLC will begin offering our customers Remote Pilot in Command (RPIC) services for hire in addition to the technology consulting services we currently provide.

2.  When and how did you get interested in drones?

I have always been excited by UAS technology, I possess a mechanical engineering and computer science background and I have a passion for a wide variety of fantastic machines.

A couple of years ago I saw a $50 drone in the store and couldn’t refuse.  I just couldn’t believe that someone could build a flying machine for that price.  I had a lot of fun with that little drone in its short life, and like many of the drones that would follow it became a casualty in the name of furthering the science.

Intrigued by first experience I started investigating and was thrilled to find like-minded enthusiasts who were building their own drones out of relatively inexpensive components in their garages.  Being an engineer, I of course thought I could do better and within a week I had parts on order to build a drone for myself. 

Over the next year I would build a number drones for a number of applications. What really got me excited was using them for mapping and 3D reconstruction applications and I built a number of prototypes in my garage capable of capturing the required data. I was lucky enough to have a friend with a similar passion for flying machines with a large pasture that over time would turn to a veritable graveyard of drones.   We learned so much about the technology as we built, flew, crashed and repaired our flying machines. 

About the time I was getting my mapping prototypes airborne DJI released the Phantom, and it really changed everything.  You could buy a $1000 drone at WalMart that, when coupled with the right software, was able to create detailed maps and structural models.   Its introduction has enabled a whole new class of user. Cost effective and easy to use, its introduction is as significant as the personal computer or the Ford Model T.  (A good number of our readers (or their kids) probably already have one of these).

I found the inspiration to found skynce, LLC after an aspiring drone pilot came to me with a DJI Phantom 3 not quite sure what he could do with it.  He had heard about my experiments with mapping and was eager to learn more, I was eager to test the new Phantom so we spent a couple of days together in which we experimented with his new toy. The imagery I will present in this interview was captured during our time collaborating and learning.




https://skfb.ly/LKCF

I founded skynce, LLC, to help individuals and businesses understand and implement UAS technology, with a focus on how to utilize the acquired data for mapping and 3D reconstruction purposes.

4.  What is the regulatory environment like these days? Do you see any changes in the near future? If so, what will the impact be?

We are on the cusp of a significant change in regulations that is going to reduce a lot of barriers to entry that are currently in place to organizations seeking to implement UAS technology.    Specifically at the end of August the FAA will be putting into effect the new part 107 regulations.  These new regulations will lower the regulatory threshold to commercially operate drones while maintaining the importance of safety in operations.  A new class of commercial users will begin employing UAS technology as a routine function of their jobs.

While I am excited about the forthcoming part 107 regulatory regime that will be in place at the end of this month in April of 2015 the FAA in the face of media sensationalism about the potential for misuse introduced the burdensome process for obtaining FAA 333 exemptions for commercial drone use.

Under the current regulatory regime companies seeking to fly UAS commercially have to get a FAA 333 exemption, and all but the best-funded startups can afford the lawyers to get one in put in place.  Further the Pilot in Command of operations had to hold a sports pilot's license at a minimum to operate the UAS.  Reducing the number of projects that could be completed in a commercially viable manner.

As we see part 107 introduced in September, a lot of the regulatory overhead will be reduced for commercial operators.  Remote Pilots in Command will need to be certified under the new regime, but the requirement to carry a sports pilot's license will be dropped.   With these lower barriers to entry we are going to see professionals in a variety of markets adopt drone usage as a part of their day to day jobs. Insurance adjusters, realtors, landscapers, architects and yes, even geologists, are going to be adopting this technology.


Changing Regulations and Operators Demographic

3.  What are some of the areas of most dramatic growth in drone uses? 

If you look at the first 1000 333 Exemptions issued by the FAA you can get some insight into the early adopters looking to employ UAS as a part of their business.  As we move to the new regulatory regime we are going to see increased usage in all these market segments. 

A breakdown of the first 1000 FAA 333 exemptions

Real Estate shows up pretty high on the list of exemptions granted, it will soon be the norm that 3D models like this will be included in real estate listings.


https://skfb.ly/LYWw



Aerial Surveying is also one of the most filed exemption types.  Drones provide a means to capture up to date imagery of an area at a relatively low cost.  Further this updated data can be easily imported into mapping applications.  When we look at lof of the activities associated with resource development and construction these are both areas where data currency matters. 

The data collected for mapping applications can also be used to generate 3D models of terrain and other structures using a technique called photogrammetry. The resultant models can be used to complete tasks such as volumetric analysis and the generation of topographic maps.

UAS acquired orthomosaic map overlaid on dated satellite imagery

UAS acquired orthomosaic map overlaid on dated satellite imagery

Topographic map generated from UAS acquired data.

3D Structural model generated from UAS acquired data.

Agriculture is another an area where we are already seeing widespread adoption of UAS, use of specialized cameras and Normalized Differential Vegetation Indexing (NDVI) is enabling farmers to really take a bird's eye view of their fields and identify areas that need remediation, prescribe corrective action and then monitor success of corrective actions taken.

NDVI Map Generated from Drone Acquired data.

6.  How can an individual or a small business that focuses on natural resources development and geographical information get started? How best can they team up?

The first step is to really get educated about how drones can be used to support your business, and how the availability of current low cost aerial data will impact how you do business.

What you will find is that once you start exploring implementing this technology you will realize that finding a certified pilot and buying a drone is only a small piece of the drone adoption equation.

An organization needs to understand how it will plan, execute in compliance, process and ultimately use the data they acquire from drones.  It needs to understand the investments in technology, training and compliance required to fulfill their vision.

I work with my clients to help them understand and implement the programs and technologies needed to achieve their vision of drone adoption in their business.

7.  What kinds of drones are best to use and how much do they cost?

Earlier in this article I gave pretty high praise to DJI and there Phantom Drone, and all the imagery I have used in this article was captured using these devices that are extremely accessible given current pricing.

With that said a Drone should be selected as a function of what you are trying to accomplish.  The phantom is a great tool for surveying small areas of interest, for larger areas such as those encountered in agricultural applications fixed wing drones are often better suited for the job.  There are a quite few options for commercial fixed wing drones available with mission specific payloads. 

Further the cost of the drone is really only a small part of the investment required to leverage UAS technology in your business. Software, insurance, certification, location, size all factor into total operation cost. These things all need to be considered when planning a UAS operation.

8.  What do you see as the best opportunities in the medium-term?

Once we move into the new regulatory regime in September we are going to see explosive growth in all the fields mentioned above. A lot of projects that were not cost effective suddenly will be, further there will be less regulatory overhead. For a lot of business the next few months will be a key time to adopt this technology to gain a competitive advantage or to just keep up.

This interview was first published on the AAPG Learn! Blog by Susan Nash
Please stay tuned for information on workshops - How to Make Money with Drones


Tuesday, July 19, 2016

How the Mind Makes Sense of Patterns

LifeEdge 043 focuses on how the mind makes sense of patterns. In this chat,Rick and Susan carry on with an interesting talk about patterns and how the mind makes sense of things. What really is reality? How are patterns present in your life? Can you change yourself by recognizing your habitual patterns? Tell us your thoughts!

Life Edge 043: How the mind makes sense of patterns from RELATECASTS on Vimeo.

Here are additional thoughts about making meaning from patterns.

Visual perception is a process, and there are three sequential stages:

Stage 1:  pass the features from our field of vision from the neurons in our eyes to the primary visual cortex in the brain. This is the pre-attentive stage.

Stage 2:  the brain divides the visual field and creates groupings based on their proximity

Stage 3:  the brain tries to make sense of the patterns and does so by moving between working memory and the image, in a process that involves querying

In machine-based pattern recognition, there are five main approaches (Jain and Duin, 2004):

1.  Template matching
2.  Geometrical classification
3.  Statistical classification
4.  Structural matching
5.  Artificial neural networks

The brain's pattern recognizing processes can bring a number of possible interpretations. When the affective parts of the brain are involved in the process (or the limbic), the result is a deeply impactful experience. Meaning / cognition are linked with emotion, and the result is often what is considered a religious experience. (McNamara, etal, 20016).
Hyperconnectivity between the limbic and temporal lobes, and investigators have found such connections in individuals who have described intense mystical experiences.

Con artists are effective because they understand how to trigger the meaning-making processes of individuals and guide them along a path to a certain interpretation. They do it by skillfully replicating enough of a pattern that the victim leaps to certain conclusions, and then, especially if it is connected with an emotional trigger, will go to great lengths to defend it (even when it is clearly not correct) (Konnikova, 2016).


Resources:

Few, Stephen (2006) Visual Pattern Recognition. Cognos Innovation Center White Paper. https://www.perceptualedge.com/articles/Whitepapers/Visual_Pattern_Rec.pdf

Jain, Anil K., and Robert P. W. Duin. (2004). Introduction to Pattern Recognition. in The Oxford Companion to the Mind, second Ediction. Oxford UP: 698-703.

Konnikova, Maria. (2016) The Confidence Game: Why We Fall For It ... Every Time. New York: Viking, 2016.

Paloutzian, Raymond F., Swenson, Erica L., and Patrick McNamara (2006) Religious conversion, spiritual transformation, and the neurocognition of meaning making. Where God and Science Meet: How Brain and Evolutionary Studies alter Our Understanding of Religion. Vol 2: The Neurology of Religious Experience. ed. by Patrick McNamara. pp 151-170.


How the Mind Makes Sense of Patterns https://lnkd.in/eK5czEa LifeEdge 043 #artificalIntelligence #neurocognition #patterns #neuralnetworks

Sunday, July 03, 2016

The "South Sea Bubble" and the "Mississippi Scheme" - Plumbing History for a Solution to U.S. National Debt

The U.S. National Debt is now around $19 trillion, which works out to more than $160,000 from each taxpayer. That’s a lot. Some day, we’ll need to find a way to address the problem. One proposal, which echoes what has happened in the past would be to grant “exclusives” to companies.

For example, could a company propose to take over the U.S.’s national debt in exchange for an “exclusive” – monopolistic control of the Internet?

If it’s any consolation, we’re not alone with our large, choking obligations. Many countries have faced enormous debt and a sluggish economy, so they have not been able to simply tax or confiscate their citizen’s earnings or assets.

So, what have they done? Let’s take a page from our economic history book and look at two very interesting cases of innovative solutions to national debt. Neither one worked out very well; in fact, you could say they were disastrous. But, could they work today? If we just tweak the approach, would it work?  The first was the “South Sea Bubble” and the other was the “Mississippi Scheme”.  Both had to do with the government giving “exclusives” and monopolies to individual companies.

The “South Sea Bubble”:  In 1710, England was facing serious debts from wars and other skirmishes, as well as anxieties about how to make its colonies start producing revenues. The Industrial Revolution had not occurred yet, and the big sources of income were from mercantile operations – trading with the colonies. Unfortunately, North America had not been the big bonanza they had hoped for. Spain and Brazil had all the luck – South America seemed to be dripping gold and silver everywhere they looked. (It’s too bad the English did not start in California, but that’s another story).


So, knowing what a good thing trade with South America could be, Robert Harley formed the South Sea Company, and then proposed to the government that he would take over the national debt (pay it off) if he could get an exclusive on trade with Spain.

The government of England was all for it. They eagerly supported him and even raised taxes so they could pay him a little extra.

But, there was one snag. Spain did agree to the trade deal. They agreed to one port, one time a year, and you couldn’t trade in gold or good – only slaves. And, they wanted 50% of the profits and a 5% flat tax. So, it was an immoral, low-profit proposition for the company. It would not work for the government.

What could be done?  The 18th century equivalent of an IPO was launched, with lots and lots of hype. No one bothered to describe the real deal. It was all blue sky and gold. And, the people bought it. Everyone did.



What resulted was a colossal bubble – and it was so clearly a bubble that the people embraced the concept. The idea was to buy while the bubble was still expanding, and sell at a profit. Unfortunately, no one really wanted to discuss the eventual outcome of all bubbles – the big POP. This was before the day of the SEC and Sarbannes-Oxley, and so it was not long before enterprising and creative entrepreneurs launched their own bubbles.

It worked for a while. But, eventually, when it collapsed, it wiped out the savings of people at all walks of life. There was despair, and there were suicides and murders.

But it did not stop the impetus of the “bubble” and the contagion of bubble enthusiasm. Everyone thinks they can game the system and time it. But, playing a bubble is filled with treacherous risk.

Across the English Channel, a Scottish visionary and economist, John Law, was proposing a similar deal to bail out the French government. He suggested giving a company a monopoly to do trade with the French holdings in North America, which included the Mississippi River and the broad swath of land.

His scheme was similar to the South Sea Company’s idea, but with a few key differences. John Law did it through opening a bank, the Banque Generale, and by getting permission to print bank notes. Paper money was new to France, and the idea was the more money you printed, the more you’d stimulate economic activity. Then, he was able to get an exclusive on the French North American trade for his “Compagnie d’Occident.”

There were many, many trading opportunities, and it seemed to be a great value. But, the problem was that John Law’s bank issued too many bank notes. What resulted was inflation and economic collapse for France, which lasted more than eighty years, and, which fueled the economic inequality which would fuel the French Revolution and fire up the guillotine.

 Are there any modern-day analogues?  Has the government given an “exclusive” or a monopoly on what could be a very lucrative commercial opportunity? What if you’re the only provider of the Internet (or everyone thinks you are)?

Let’s return to the first question posed. Could a company propose to take over the U.S.’s national debt in exchange for an “exclusive” – monopolistic control of the Internet? And, what if that company were secretly funded by another country?

The implications are quite interesting. I have a feeling it has been tried in other countries – for that reason, cell phones and internet access are controlled by a single company. But, we’re talking about a huge magnitude of difference, with dramatic and radical implications.

For further reading:


Harvard Business School. “South Sea Bubble: Short History” http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/ssb/history.html

Mackay, Charles. (1841) Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. London: Richard Bentley Press. https://archive.org/details/extraordinarypop014178mbp

Mississippi History Now. John Law and the Mississippi Bubble: 1718-1720. http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/articles/70/john-law-and-the-mississippi-bubble-1718-1720






Thursday, June 16, 2016

Develop and Host Your Course for Free: MoodleCloud Hosting

-->If you enjoy the flexibility of Moodle, but find that most hosting packages are too expensive for development and start-ups, or that you just do not have time to constantly add the updates, Moodle now offers free hosting through MoodleCloud (https://moodlecloud.com/en/). I used it when I was writing Moodle 3.x Teaching Techniques, and I can say that the experience was very positive.  

Here are some of the highlights of my experience using MoodleCloud:

Latest version of Moodle:  I've worked with Moodle in a locally hosted setting, and also I've used cloud-based hosting solutions available online.  MoodleCloud.com was far superior. MoodleCloud has the advantage of using the latest version of Moodle, and all the updates are present. Not all the third-party plugins are available for the free version, and since you're not administering this installation of Moodle, you can't add them, but that is a very minor detail when considering all the benefits of Moodle and the solutions. 

  
Generous Package for Free:  The free version of MoodleCloud allows you to have up to 50 users, and to develop as many courses as you'd like. 50 users gives you enough flexibility to really try out a course, and to see how things will work once you start adding users. For example, using BigBlueButton for web-conferencing and webcasting works seamlessly and smoothly within MoodleCloud. This is not always the case using other hosting options.

Plenty of Bandwidth:  One problem with some hosting solutions is that they do not have enough bandwidth, or there are other routing issues that cause annoying slowdowns and time-outs.

Accommodates a Wide Range of Media: I wanted to include videos, audio, and also photos I took for the course I developed on Trends in Tourism. I wanted to focus especially on the Mexican Pueblos Mágicos (Magical Villages), which are very successful endeavors by the Mexican government to preserve historical, cultural, and natural landmarks while also stimulating economic development by means of tourism. Here's an example of a unit focused on saving endangered sea turtles. 


 Mobile-Friendly: The Moodlecloud hosting solution is mobile-friendly, which is extremely helpful since so many people now access courses using their mobile devices (phones, tablets, iPads, etc.).

Scalable:  The free solution is perfect for beta testing new courses, and also for trying out some of the plugins and features of Moodle. If your course or your institution's e-learning takes off, you don't have to change solutions. You can scale up quite easily by subscribing to a larger plan, which are quite affordable.

The only downside that I can see to MoodleCloud is that it is in a beta mode, and it's possible that they may discontinue it. I hope not! But, that said, Moodle is very popular and I think that it's possible that it will be the first-choice solution of many users.

Moodle 3.x Teaching Techniques - Now available!
 

Monday, June 06, 2016

Kick-Start Your Voice for E-Learning / M-Learning that Truly Engages Your Audience

You may be surprised to learn that your voice is a key determinant of success in a webinar, presentation (live or recorded), or video-based e-learning. While most people think that having sharp graphics is the key, if you deliver your message in a monotone, mumble, and ramble, you'll lose your audience, no matter how great the visual presentation.

Here are tips for making your voice keep your audience's attention and communicate your message:

* Audio recording for a presentation
* Podcast or voice over
* Audio accompaniment for images, PowerPoint, maps, instructions, e-learning
* Story

The tips are based on voice coaches and experts Tracy Goodwin, VoiceBunny, etc.

https://vimeo.com/169169793

Interview with Tracy Goodwin, Voice Coach, on LifeEdge (hosted on Vimeo).

1.  Begin with confidence. Invite your audience to join you and communicate your enthusiasm. If it takes you 5 minutes to get "warmed up," it's too long. Your audience will have already abandoned you at the one-minute mark.

2.  Speak clearly. Don't mumble or start swallowing your words. Keep your voice strong and healthy. This may involve making sure that you're hydrated and that you are well rested.

3.  Avoid mispronunciations.  If you have doubts about how a word is pronounced, look it up in a dictionary, and practice. If you mispronounce technical terms and you're a technical expert, you have just undermined your credibility. (!)

4.  Avoid speaking in a monotone. Pause, create emphasis where appropriate, and communicate emotion. This ties to a theme that unites all the points: variety.

5.  Speak conversationally, and stay relaxed. This is especially important when you want your audience to feel comfortable and to trust your information and tips.

6.  Emphasize the key points. Know how to guide the audience to the most important part.  Pacing, pauses, tonal shading may all play a part.

7.  Talk to the audience, don't simply read. Do not simply read the same words that the audience will see on the screen.

8.  Personalize, if possible.  If appropriate, elaborate with brief experiential anecdotes. Jot down an outline or a full script of your anecdote so that you'll avoid rambling.

9.  Keep each point brief. Avoid digressions. If you are providing an accompaniment to a PowerPoint presentation, keep each point brief and stay focused. Less is definitely more.
10.  Vary pace, rhythm, tone, volume, breathing.  You may need a coach for this, but if you don't have the opportunity, you can at least practice recording yourself, and then listening. Do you put yourself to sleep? Do you find your mind wandering as you listen to yourself? If you bore yourself, imagine what you'll do to your audience.

11. Know your audience. Understand their expectations. If you don't, you run the risk of very negative reviews and feedback. I volunteered to read passages of a book by Wilkie Collins, and I thought I'd make it a lively, dramatic reading, replete with voices for the different characters (one of whom was totally unhinged, and murderously so). Well, for the one listener who wanted a bland, monotonous delivery, I was a disagreeable surprise. He/she wasted no time posting vicious reviews of my effort. The fact that several listeners applauded my performance did not really help. I obsessed about that negative review to the point that I stopped recording for almost a year!

There are several ways to record your audio:

Audacity:  This open source software program is by far the best option for creating excellent, easily modified and edited audio tracks. However, it does take a bit of time to understand how to convert to mp3 and also to use some of the features, such as noise elimination. http://www.audacityteam.org/

PowerPoint:  You can record your voice directly and embed the file in each slide. The result is a gargantuan file.

Record with your SmartPhone:  Android has a very easy to use Voice Recoder App. You can also then run the audio through speech to text and create a script.

Garageband: Garageband is easy to use and comes free on Macs and iPhones.

Links and Resources
Interview with voice expert Tracy Goodwin:
https://vimeo.com/169169793

Improve your Speaking Abilities: http://voicebunny.com/blog/voice-training-9-tips-improve-speaking-abilities/

Top 10 Voice Over Tips: https://www.videomaker.com/article/c4/14617-top-10-best-voice-over-tips

Sunday, May 29, 2016

Pawnee Bill, The Wild West Show and the Ever-Changing American Identity

21st-century American identity and the 19th-century Wild West Shows are tied together in deep, often surprising ways. They persist and shape our cultural productions and even the way the world frames their political and economic discussions with and about the U.S. To understand why and how, it is useful to take a look at historical documents, artifacts, and reenactments. The Pawnee Bill Wild West Show is an example, and it takes place June 10-11, 2016, in Pawnee, Oklahoma.

The Pawnee Bill Ranch and Museum has arguably the world's most comprehensive collection of Wild West Show artifacts. It was the home and ranch of Pawnee Bill, whose Wild West Shows persisted in one form or another, always bigger and better, for more than 25 years, from the late 19th century through the early 20th century.



Pawnee Bill Ranch and Museum, Pawnee, Oklahoma
 The annual reenactment of the Pawnee Bill Wild West Show takes place each year the second week of June. It spans two days, and starts with a parade at the town square in Pawnee, Oklahoma, and ends up at the site of the Pawnee Bill Ranch, where there are permanent show grounds, as well as a museum and preserved mansion, barn, and other outbuildings. The site also contains a working ranch with American bison, horses, and cattle.

The importance of the Wild West Show as entertainment is indisputable. Wild West Shows were popular both in the major cities as well as in rural America. For the inhabitants of the urban areas, the Wild West Shows represented a dramatic spectacle that fascinated those who attended, and who held a complicated and complex notion of the American West, at once the great, vast frontier of boundless potential, while also representing the darkest recesses of the human psyche, where violence, lawlessness, unthwarted desire, and danger abounded.



Interview with Erin Brown, Curator of Collections, Pawnee Bill Ranch and Museum

 If America was the place of the "Great Re-Invention" as immigrants arrived with the idea of establishing not only new prosperous lives, but also new identities, then the "Wild West" was a place of absolute flux in terms of identities. It was a place where men wore hair as long as women, and ornamented themselves in silver, turquoise, and gold. It was a place where women stood on the back of horses and out-shot the men in accuracy and aplomb. 

It was also a place of caricatures and pernicious stereotypes, as commonly held and communicated ideas were routinely strip Native Americans, African Americans, Mexicans, Asians, and other groups of their humanity and even their lives.

The Wild West Show was, above all, a spectacle, with dramatic costumes, sharpshooting, rope tricks, stage coach robberies, horseback football, and other events.  Like a Las Vegas show a century later, the goal was to entertain the masses, and to have them arrive with dreams and stars in their eyes, all conveniently manufactured by the mass media of the day: dime novels, early moving pictures, handbills, daguerrotypes, ink prints, serialized stories in newspapers, costumes, and jewelry.

But, the question becomes, which came first: the dime novel or the Wild West Show? And, then, how did that shape the notion of American Identity?

The barrier between the two is miscible: think of the Wild West Show and the notion of American identity as fluids that constantly move back and forth, constantly mixing and changing.


Why does it matter?  Here are a few questions that are triggered by considering the Wild West Show and American identity:





* What part of "Wild West" shapes current ideas of identity?
* Where and when did the exploits of the "Wild West" merge into science fiction genres?
* Where does the Wild West Show show up in science fiction movies, television, and novels?
*What are the key characteristics of Wild West personae and the dramas depicted in the enactments of the show?

On the day of the show, many people come to Pawnee and role play their favorite Western characters (historical, cultural, or mythical). Here is the film / literature character from True Grit, Rooster Cogburn (enacted by Dr. Benes)
 Here are a few initial thoughts about characteristics of the Wild West Show and the archetypes / mythos that are generated and perpetuated:

    Clash between good and evil
    Showdowns and shoot-outs (duels, updated)
    "Cowboy" values: what do you stand for if you wear the white hat?
    "Outlaw" values:  what do you stand for if you wear the black hat?
    A place where anti-heroes prevail (the outsider, the outlaw, the disenfranchised, the outside-the-norm)
        Independent women (female ranchers)
        Tribes fighting to the death against the forces have sought to destroy them
        Counter-Christian beliefs
        The outlaw (of all kinds)
        The saloon girl / prostitute as a normalized female
        The Mexican wanderer / seeker
        The warrior who subjects himself to a "dark night of the soul"
        The vision quester
        Uncorsetted female
        The loner (often traumatized veteran)


May Lillie, of the Pawnee Bill Wild West Show

Perhaps all these questions and ruminations would be simply a pleasing anachronism, except that the ideas persist.

While some of the stereotypes are pernicious, others are very liberating and they encourage acceptance of individual difference. Further, they are constantly in flux, and form a part of a cultural mythos that is perhaps not as well understood as we need it to be, particularly as we live in a time of instant mass communication and rapid-fire meme generation. 

We need to know when we're responding to an image or a set of behaviors because we've been conditioned to do so by the socialization processes embodied in cultural myth and mythos.

Scenes from the Pawnee Bill Wild West Show, 2015
 
Blacksmith Adam

Chariot: Kevin Dibble

Drill Team Dibble

Mike Pahsetopah, Fancy Dancer

Contact information:  
Erin Brown / ebrown@okhistory.org
Ronny Brown / rbrown@okhistory.org 



Thursday, May 26, 2016

"Girl" by Jamaica Kincaid: A Worksheet and an Analytical Response

Jamaica Kincaid's short story, "Girl" (1978) is remarkable in the way that it captures a personal voice expressed through what appears at first glance to be either the voice of an admonishing mother, or a stream of consciousness or an internal dialogue. The voice is powerful and it conveys the identity of the narrator by means of a series of guidelines, reminders, and "notes to self" that show the social construction of identity, as well as the way that one defines oneself by means of daily tasks.


The original publication:
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1978/06/26/girl

Because the story does not tell the reader who the narrator is, the reader may make assumptions.

In order to analyze the story, it is often a good idea to create a list of guiding questions and then systematically answer them as you refer to the text.

How does the story begin? What are the activities? What do they entail?

When I delve into the story, I find myself a bit off-balance. It’s hard to tell who the narrator is, and what exactly is going on. My first impulse is to assume it’s an internal monologue – one of the voices that tends to inhabit the recesses of one’s mind, and which, when analyzed, tend to be a composite of the voices that we listened to and abided, which is to say we respected them to the point that we internalized them, for good or for worse.

This voice is not a very nurturing voice, and after I read further, I see that there is a bit of “talking back” so that instead of an internal monologue, it is, at the very least, a dialogue.

The question is, “Is it internal? Or, is the voice an external one?” The next question is, “How and why might it matter?”

Who is the narrator? 

The narrative is speaking in second person and she is addressing the “girl” of the title.

There are at least two possibilities for the narrator: First, she could be the girl herself.

Or, second, she could be the mother of the girl.

How does the narrator express her thoughts?  How does her manner of expressing the thoughts in second person impact the reader? 

The narrator expresses her thoughts in the form of a series of commands, practical guidance, admonitions, veiled insults, and commentary on the kind of life / context she lives in. The reader can detect a rage at the limitations of her life and also the need to conform to social norms and adhere to strictures.

How does the author use concrete descriptions and vivid details? 

The passage is filled with specific names and unique terms which give the text a very unique flavor; they locate it squarely within the culture of the Caribbean, without actually saying which island.

The use of idiolect for the names of music and also the names of herbs, foods, and activities clearly locate the narrative within a specific place / time / socio-economic context.

Examples:
“Wash the white clothes on Monday and put them on the stone heap” (http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1978/06/26/girl, 1978)
 (hand-washing clothes, indicates the narrator is poor or at least that there are very basic clothes-washing techniques)

“is it true you sing benna in Sunday school?”
(benna refers a calypso-type genre, characterized by scandalous gossip – indicates the story takes place in Antigua)

“when you are growing dasheen, make sure it gets plenty of water”
(dasheen is a variant spelling of “dachine” which is the French for taro root, a starchy plant used for different dishes)

Where do you find repetitions?  Of activities? Of descriptions? Please list the specific examples or phrases.

There are a number of repetitions of the proper way to do household chores, but mainly the chores and tasks that a girl is expected to know

There are many repetitions of admonitions to not appear slatternly or “like the whore I know you are so bent on becoming”

From the details provided, what can you surmise about the narrator? What does she do? What is the level of technology that surrounds her? Please list the specific examples or phrases. What might the context be, in terms of socio-economic or cultural issues? 

The narrator lives somewhere in the Caribbean and is very concerned about the proper way to conduct oneself in order to be respected within her society.  It is not clear whether or not she is poor, working class, or middle class, but one senses that she is in a lower socio-economic level because of the number of tasks that have to be done, and there does not seem to be automation or assistance.
The narrator is female. She may be the mother of the girl. If so, she is very strict and exacting, and her admonitions are very clear. They may be done with the goal of protecting the daughter and giving her a future. However, there are so many insulting and demeaning sentences interspersed that one cannot read the passage without feeling a sense of tension and creeping despair.

If the narrator is the girl herself who has internalized the voice of the mother (or the collective consciousness of her context), it is very sad because one can see the internal landscape of repression, self-censoring, self-limitation, and above all, a profound inability to accept herself as she is.

Granted, a socialization process requires some changes to be made to oneself, but socialization processes should not require absolute extermination or extinction.

What are some of the values that are expressed in the passage?  How do you know? Please list the specific examples or phrases. 

This text is, in essence, a normative text.

It deals with social norms as well as family norms, particularly as they relate to the behavior and values of a young girl or an adolescent.

They are clearly sowing the seeds of rebellion, which may be healthy in its way, if it means being able to have the strength and courage to think for oneself.

However,  the micromanaging prescriptiveness of the admonitions (After all, why wash whites on Mondays?  Why not Tuesday? What are the reasons for the edicts?) is constant (and sets up a rhythmic structure in the text, kind of an anti-benna).

Further, the constant insinuation that there is socially reprehensible behavior just bursting to break free (“singing benna at Sunday school,” walking around in a dress “with the hem coming down and .. looking like the slut I know you are so bent on becoming” ) or having to conceal that nature (“they won’t recognize immediately the slut I have warned you against becoming”), generates a remarkable tension in the text. It seems to be just the narrative to function as a self-fulfilling prophecy (!)

Thursday, May 05, 2016

Interview with Jean Floten, Chancellor, Western Governors University (WGU) Washington

Welcome to an interview with Jean Floten, Chancellor of Western Governors University (WGU) Washington. Western Governors University (WGU) has been a leader in the development and delivery of online learning and has been at the forefront of establishing best practices. A flagship and guide for all organizations seeking to provide accredited, high-quality online degrees, Western Governors University has maintained a commitment to competency-based online learning, and has maintained high standards. Now, Western Governors University has partnered with the State of Washington establish WGU-Washington specifically to accommodate the needs of the citizens of Washington. 

1.    What is your name and your involvement in eLearning?
I am Jean Floten, Chancellor of Western Governors University (WGU) Washington. I’ve devoted my entire career to higher education – including over 22 years as the President of Bellevue College, where we were an early pioneer in e-Learning.  Drawn to its competency-based, mentor-supported, affordable online delivery model, I joined WGU in 2011 as the first Chancellor for Washington.


Jean Floten, Chancellor of Western Governors University Washington
2.    What is WGU Washington, and what is its history, mission, vision?
Western Governors University – WGU Washington’s “parent” organization – was founded by 19 governors of Western states in 1997.  At that time, they knew education was becoming even more important to meet the needs of a growing knowledge-based economy. Their vision was to make education more available to people in their states. They wanted to create a new type of university that captured the power of the internet to transform the way education was delivered and evaluated student learning and awarded credentials based on demonstrated competencies. They wanted it to be affordable – so people would not have to go into debt to earn a degree – and open to anyone who could benefit from the programs. 

WGU has not veered from this founding vision. It is what drives us today.

In 2010, Indiana  Governor Mitch Daniels entered into the first agreement to bring a state-based WGU affiliate into a state.

Then, five years ago this spring, Washington Governor Christine Gregoire signed legislation establishing a partnership with WGU. The legislative intent was to expand access to affordable, higher education for Washington residents. The result of that partnership is WGU Washington – the first and only legislatively-endorsed, online university in our state.

The impetus for the partnership in Washington came from community and technical colleges and legislators who knew more enrollment opportunities were needed in Washington, especially for transfer students. While more capacity was needed, budget shortfalls during the recession were making its funding impossible. WGU Washington operates on tuition only and is not dependent on state-funding or tax dollars to operate.

WGU Washington offers more than 50 job-ready bachelor’s and master’s degrees in four, high-demand fields: business, IT, teaching and nursing. WGU is the innovator of competency-based learning, a model that evaluates students and permits them to advance when they’ve proven what they know and can do, as opposed to the traditional model of using “seat-time” to measure progress. Competency-based education allows students the flexibility to work and learn at their own schedule – at a pace that works for them.

The flat rate tuition of about $3000 per six-month term permits students to take as many classes as they can, often accelerating their progress towards a degree and reducing costs. And, by the way, WGU’s surprisingly low tuition includes text books and additional learning resources! All of which keeps the cost of one’s education very affordable.  In fact, the average time for this year’s graduates to obtain a bachelor’s degree was 26 months for a bachelor’s degree and 21 months for a master’s degree.  The national average is 60 months! 

Delivered online, the model is suited well for hardworking adults who often have trouble balancing school, families, and work. Because WGU’s content is delivered online, students may study at any time and from any place – during breaks, late at night, early in the morning, weekends, or on public transit.  This permits many people to work their education into already busy lives. 

Our students are non-traditional learners. Their average age is 37 and many of them, 68 percent to be exact, are classified as underserved, meaning they live in rural areas or have low incomes.   More than a third of our students are the first in their families to attend college – a fact that makes us proud. 

3.    What does WGU Washington do? How is it unique?
WGU Washington helps hardworking Washingtonians to change their lives by qualifying them for positions that carry a living wage – enabling them to take jobs as nurses, teachers, IT or business professionals, or to qualify for advancement or even change fields altogether.

WGU uses a pioneering, competency-based model that allows working adults to apply the knowledge they have gained through work experience and previous education towards their degree, enabling them to focus on learning what they need to, when they need to.  Rather than award credit for time spent in class and listening to a single message that goes to every student, WGU Washington presents content that students cover at their own pace. Additionally, the model allows students to advance when they demonstrate they’ve mastered the course material – at a level that prepares them for professional effectiveness – by passing “high fidelity” assessments, both objective and performance based.  This unique model allows time, place, and pace-bound learners to pursue their degrees.

Studies have predicted that by 2018, 67 percent of jobs statewide here in Washington will require postsecondary education. Washingtonians— including busy adults who already have jobs, families, and lifestyles that make a traditional university setting unrealistic — will need to earn their bachelor’s and master’s degrees to qualify for these positions. WGU Washington is able to open doors for these nontraditional students and make further education possible.  For example, WGU Washington is a perfect choice for registered nurses who received an associate’s degree from a community college and are now expected by their employers to complete their bachelor’s in nursing.  With the challenging hours nurses work, WGU Washington offers the flexibility to complete the degree on their own schedules.  It is also a great choice for military personnel and their dependents who may be transferred often. They can attend WGU and never have to worry about transferring credits at their new duty station.

4.    How did WGU start to achieve its goals?
WGU Washington is proud to be part of the higher education family in Washington.  It provides a viable option to many Washingtonians, because of its affordability and accessibility, who thought getting a degree was just a distant dream.

In just five years, the university’s enrollment has increased by more than 1,000 percent from roughly 800 students in 2011 to more than 9,000 full-time students statewide today.

WGU Washington is the locally-based affiliate of Western Governors University – or, simply, WGU. WGU currently serves over 70,000 students nationally. Interestingly, Washington is home to more WGU students than any other state in the country. In addition, nearly 6,000 men and women in Washington have earned bachelor’s or master’s degrees in career-focused fields from WGU.

This staggering growth highlights the demand for the type of education WGU Washington offers.  The needs of nontraditional students – those who are historically underserved – are different from the needs of a typical undergraduate.  WGU Washington provides access to higher education for people that wouldn’t be able to earn degrees otherwise.

And when students meet their goals, our university meets its goals – goals focused on high quality, affordable and accessible higher education for students statewide.

Both students and their employers report high satisfaction with WGU.  Student satisfaction is 96%, and 100% of our employers say our grads are well-prepared for their jobs. That is what makes it all worthwhile! 





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